Myopia, also known as nearsightedness, is the counterpart to Hyperopia. Where Hyperopic patients have difficulty seeing objects up close, (reading, sewing, etc), myopic patients have difficulty seeing objects from a distance (television, street signs, etc.). This is caused by an abnormally long ocular axis, in which light rays come into focus in front of the retina. Blurry vision, eye strain and headaches are commonly associated with this refractive error if left untreated. Individuals with myopia see close objects clearly, but anything at a distance is blurry.Myopia often first presents in children, between the age of eight and 12. It is an inherited condition, so if your parents are nearsighted, you will likely become nearsighted. When the body begins to grow a lot during teenage years, myopia can become worse. Typically, between 20-40, the eyesight will not continue to worsen.
The main symptom of myopia is blurry vision for items at a distance. As it often begins in childhood, children that experience myopia may describe trouble seeing the board at the front of the room. As a result, individuals may also experience headaches and squinting to attempt to see objects better.
If the nearsightedness is only slightly pronounced, then this is harmless and can be compensated for with visual aids.If the severity occurs early in childhood, myopia control is the method of choice. If this is not done, there is still an increased risk of further eye diseases after laser treatment or surgery for myopia.
Myopia is an "optical deviation" that is actually harmless. However, if this occurs in children under the age of twelve, the risk of developing what is known as high myopia (more than -6.00 D) increases. According to researchers, the risks associated with high myopia should not be underestimated. The more pronounced the nearsightedness, the more the likelihood of further eye diseases increases. For example, a person affected with myopia between -5.00 and -7.00 D increases the risk of irreversible damage to vision (e.g. reduced visual acuity, detachment of the retina) by a factor of twenty.This risk should therefore be recognized as early as possible, because this is the only way to slow down or even stop myopia. Certain factors pose a particular risk for the development of myopia. These include:
Living conditions : If children are rarely outdoors in daylight and instead spend more time in front of a smartphone or tablet, myopia develops much faster.
If a child belongs to one of these risk groups, regular examinations should be carried out by a specialist as part of the myopia control. This can determine the progression of myopia and initiate suitable countermeasures.
Often myopia develops between the ages of six and 13. Once one parent is nearsighted, the risk to the child is three times higher. If both parents suffer from nearsightedness, the risk doubles. Therefore, parents should have an examination carried out at an early stage. If the findings do not speak against it, a myopia check should be started as soon as possible.
So far, there is no 100 percent chance of stopping or even reversing myopia. A progressive myopia can at least be slowed down with special contact lenses or with atropine-containing eye drops (0.01 percent) and rarely even stopped. Still, there are several ways to slow the progression of myopia.
To limit the progressive myopia, the fitting of so-called orthokeratological contact lenses (also known as Ortho-K lenses) is an effective and globally used option for myopia control. However, orthokeratological care has its limits and is therefore not suitable for all corrections and corneal conditions. The special contact lenses can slow down myopia by around 32 to 100 percent. Ortho-K lenses are night lenses. You can find more information about the Ortho-K lenses here .
In ophthalmology, eye drops with atropine are used in very different situations. Studies have already shown that atropine can also slow down the progression of myopia. Good results are achieved, at least in the short term, and even very low dosages have positive effects. Eye drops containing atropine can only be prescribed by an ophthalmologist, the slowdown is between 30 and 70 percent. For this purpose we use atropine eye drops 0.01%. In certain cases the dosage can be increased.
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-Miyosmart Vision glasses: from HOYA
This lens is based on DIMS (Defocus Incorporated Multiple Segments) technology, present on a 33 mm diameter surface on the lens.
This technology includes a central optical zone to correct refractive error (myopia and astigmatism) and several hundred convex power segments, providing myopic defocus. Result: 50% of the rays are focused on the retina and 50% forward, regardless of the gaze position.
The creation of a myopic defocus (bringing rays in front of the retina) prevents the axial lengthening of the eyeball linked to the progression of myopia.
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(there is no commercial benefit, this text has purely and informative purpose)
Usually multifocal, progressive, soft contact lenses are only used to correct for near and far. If the viewing zones are specially arranged, an effect similar to that of Ortho-K lenses can be achieved. Recent studies show that this method is not as effective as Ortho-K lenses, but myopia can be slowed by about 29 to 45% .The contact lenses are worn during the day.
So-called bifocal lenses (upper lens area for the distance, lower lens area for the near) or progressive lenses (Varilux varifocal lenses) are ground invisibly for near and far. Studies have shown that glasses with these lenses can slow down myopia by around twelve to 55 percent.
The new Misight contact lenses (Cooper Vision) and other soft contact lenses that must be worn during the day can also curb the increase in myopia. The contact lenses must be fitted by an experienced optician.
In order to be able to take preventive measures, myopia control is of great importance when the risk factors already mentioned are present. If the first signs of myopia are shown during examinations, various measures can be taken to prevent and improve it.
In general, many health benefits are attributed to activities in the great outdoors. It also affects eye development. Above all, the changing focus of the eyes on different distances and daylight have positive effects.In addition, dopamine is released in the retina in daylight. This controls eye growth. Furthermore, when exposed to strong light with blue light, the retina is stimulated to allow dopamine to flow in and thus maintain the round shape of the eye.Too weak and more red-heavy light causes the dopamine level to drop, which elongates the eye. The more time is spent outdoors, the more dopamine is released. For this reason, children should be outdoors for at least two hours a day.
The lives of children have been fundamentally changed in recent years by tablets, smartphones and notebooks. In the meantime, this technology has become part of everyday life, especially in times of the corona lockdown, its use has increased significantly. The problem: permanent accommodation can make the eye grow in the long term and thus promote myopia. Children should therefore not use these devices for hours every day. In this context, the distance between the eyes and what is read is also important. This should be as large as possible